Peru – Cutting Poverty

Peru – Cutting Poverty Listen BBC The Compass, My Perfect Country

How has Peru cut its poverty rate in half in just ten years? Building on decades of economic growth, a policy of inclusive economics has meant many of the poorest in the country have shared in the prosperity created by the boom. Government schemes to extend basic services such as piped water, sanitation and electricity to slum areas, underpinned by social programmes for children, families and the over 65s, have helped to lift 7 million people out of poverty in the last five years alone. Low-income communities have played a vital role in the speed and extent to which this has been rolled out, putting pressure on successive governments through direct action such as protests and roadblocks.

But there are problems. Rural poverty rates remain high, many people are still slipping through the net, and more investment in health and education is needed. Corruption is endemic, and Peru’s largely informal economy means the improvement in people’s living conditions is precarious, particularly as the country’s economy is now slowing down.

Image: A woman pushes a child in a pram, Credit: Getty Images

So should Peru’s poverty reduction be added to the My Perfect Country pile of policies? Fi Glover, Martha Lane Fox and Henrietta Moore, the team imagining building a nation from the policies that are making the world a better place, debate the pros and cons with the help of Jelke Boesten from King’s College London.

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THE LIFE AND PHILOSOPHIES

THE LIFE AND PHILOSOPHIES

There are some people who work for profit and there are some people who work for the peoples. And then there are people  who effectively combine the two by earning a return on their investment while working for social well-being. I am believing to become a Social Entrepreneur , we can  plan to works for the welfare of the people. I am have study  the business concept defined by Nobel Peace Prize winner Muhammad Yunus called social business.

Social Business:

establish a social business with an aim to social problems for the general good of the society. It is a profit-making company in which all the income is not used for personal use but is invested in the expansion of the company or to help other social objectives. With the use of these principle,  we could  be able to increase the resources for  of the society with every step we takes forward. Since, the money we earn are not utilized for material gain and instead invested into the company. We will be able to reach more and more people who are in need of help as their company grows. we could  utilizes new and innovative techniques to create more opportunities where it is needed the most. We shows  that it is possible to live a better life while creating better lives for those around us.

 

We could plan to create a platform to make this world a better place to live in.

I have been interested in psychology such psychoanalysis , Behaviorism & Cognitive ,Gestalt , Bio-Energy  who guide me to have interested in oriental philosophies

I  traveled abroad in Asia in India and China to study  traditional practices . My aim is to propagate the wealth of knowledge found in ancient philosophies on a more global scale.

I have  thoroughly researched and studied mental wellness techniques like Taoism Qi Cong Taichi chuan  , buddhism  theravada , chinese  Mahayana   and reflexology and Tuina in the Chinese culture and  Hatha Yoga  in the Hindu culture. I believe that these techniques can fill the emptiness of the soul that exists in the corporate world. My experience in the field of mental wellness can be utilized by us for our wholesome development and to eliminate negativity from our lives.

 

I believe that mental wellness must be accompanied by physical well-being. Only a healthy body can lead to a healthy and peaceful soul. i have trained and practiced the martial art of Kung-Fu wu su such Sanda , chuan tao lu   and Thai Boxing for overall strength and development. I  use the skills of Kung fu not to use physical force but to develop an inner strength. i have been able to improve on my wisdom through his practice of the ancient art. Kung-Fu has helped me in the development of positive qualities like discipline and concentration.

I have seen  those Martials arts & Yoga  therefor Holistic had inflenced the psychology humanist such the psychotherapy such Bio-Energy   William Reich & Alexander Lowen  and Training autogene of Johannes Heinrich schultz  and relaxation progressive of Edmund Jacobson  .

Rediscover Life

Rediscover Life

From morning to evening, for seven days a week and twelve months a year all we do is repeat the monotonous routine that we have ahead of us. With what we do, it certainly fills our pockets and soul but does it satisfy your heart? Does it calm your mind? If you feel that amidst this hustle you are losing the more important of what makes everything, then this is the right place for you.

About Mikael prone:  My theory about life which encompasses the more relevant things that we often overlook due to stress or work or simply because we are tired.  I am trying to become a philanthropist such a Social Entrepreneur , i  likes to travel and share his ideas with like-minded people who want to have a good day and not only just a busy packed day. I guess than we can be able to transform lives by introducing people to total wellness which give a new meaning to life altogether.
I am  interesting in social entrepreneurship ,Innovation ,Labs HUB   , Start-up companies

This concept may be applied to a variety of organizations with different sizes, aims, and beliefs.[2] For-profit entrepreneurs typically measure performance using business metrics like profit, revenues and increases in stock prices, but social entrepreneurs are either non-profits or blend for-profit goals with generating a positive « return to society » and therefore must use different metrics. Social entrepreneurship typically attempts to further broad social, cultural, and environmental goals often associated with the voluntary sector[3] in areas such as poverty alleviation, health care and community development.

At times, profit-making social enterprises may be established to support the social or cultural goals of the organization but not as an end in itself. For example, an organization that aims to provide housing and employment to the homeless may operate a restaurant, both to raise money and to provide employment for the homeless.

In the 2010s, social entrepreneurship is facilitated by the use of the Internet, particularly social networking and social media websites. These websites enable social entrepreneurs to reach a large number of people who are not geographically close yet who share the same goals and encourage them to collaborate online, learn about the issues, disseminate information about the group’s events and activities, and raise funds through crowdfunding.

 

In the 2000s, scholars and practitioners have debated which individuals or organizations can be considered to be social entrepreneurs. Thus far, there has been no firm consensus on the definition of social entrepreneurship, as so many different fields, disciplines and organization types are associated with social entrepreneurship, ranging from for-profit businesses to hybrid models combining charitable work with business activities, to non-profit charities, voluntary sector organizations and non-governmental organizations. Philanthropists, social activists, environmentalists, and other socially-oriented practitioners are often referred to as social entrepreneurs. Social entrepreneurs can include a range of career types and professional backgrounds, ranging from social work and community development to entrepreneurship and environmental science. For this reason, it is difficult to determine who is a social entrepreneur. David Bornstein has even used the term « social innovator » interchangeably with social entrepreneur, due to the creative, non-traditional strategies that many social entrepreneurs use.[4] For a clearer definition of what social entrepreneurship entails, it is necessary to set the function of social entrepreneurship apart from other voluntary sector and charity-oriented activities and identify the boundaries within which social entrepreneurs operate.[5] Some scholars have advocated restricting the term to founders of organizations that primarily rely on earned income (meaning income earned directly from paying consumers), rather than income from donations or grants. Others have extended this to include contracted work for public authorities, while still others include grants and donations.

Social entrepreneurship in modern society offers an altruistic form of entrepreneurship that focuses on the benefits that society may reap.[6] Simply put, entrepreneurship becomes a social endeavor when it transforms social capital in a way that affects society positively.[7] It is viewed as advantageous because the success of social entrepreneurship depends on many factors related to social impact that traditional corporate businesses do not prioritize. Social entrepreneurs recognize immediate social problems, but also seek to understand the broader context of an issue that crosses disciplines, fields, and theories.[7] Gaining a larger understanding of how an issue relates to society allows social entrepreneurs to develop innovative solutions and mobilize available resources to affect the greater global society. Unlike traditional corporate businesses, social entrepreneurship ventures focus on maximizing gains in social satisfaction, rather than maximizing profit gains.[8] Both private and public agencies worldwide have had billion-dollar initiatives to empower deprived communities and individuals.[7] Such support from organizations in society, such as government-aid agencies or private firms, may catalyze innovative ideas to reach a larger audience.

Prominent individuals associated with social entrepreneurship include Pakistani Akhter Hameed Khan and Bangladeshi Muhammad Yunus. Yunus was the founder of Grameen Bank, which pioneered the concept of microcredit for supporting innovators in multiple developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.[9] He received a Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts. Others, such as former Indianapolis mayor Stephen Goldsmith addressed social efforts on a local level by using the private sector to provide city services.[10][11]

Characteristics[edit]

Bill Drayton founded Ashoka in 1978, an organization which supports local social entrepreneurs. Drayton tells his employees to look for four qualities: creativity, entrepreneurial quality, social impact of the idea, and ethical fiber.[12] Creativity has two parts: goal-setting and problem-solving. Social entrepreneurs are creative enough to have a vision of what they want to happen and how to make that vision happen.[13] In their book The Power of Unreasonable People John Elkington and Pamela Hartigan identify why social entrepreneurs are, as they put it, unreasonable. They argue that these men and women seek profit in social output where others would not expect profit. They also ignore evidence suggesting that their enterprises will fail and attempt to measure results which no one is equipped to measure.[14] About this, the Schwab Foundation says that entrepreneurs have, « A zeal to measure and monitor their impact. Entrepreneurs have high standards, particularly in relation to their own organization’s efforts and in response to the communities with which they engage. Data, both quantitative and qualitative, are their key tools, guiding continuous feedback and improvement. »[15]Ashoka operates in multiple countries.

Entrepreneurial quality builds from creativity. Not only do entrepreneurs have an idea that they must implemented, they know how to implement it and are realistic in the vision of implementing it. Drayton says that, « Entrepreneurs have in their heads the vision of how society will be different when their idea is at work, and they can’t stop until that idea is not only at work in one place, but is at work across the whole society. »[16] This manifests through a clear idea of what they believe the future will look and a drive to make this come true. Besides this, entrepreneurs are not happy with the status quo; they want healthy change.[17]

Social impact measures whether the idea itself will be able to cause change after the original founder is gone. If an idea has intrinsic worth, once implemented it will cause change even without the charismatic leadership of the first entrepreneur.[18] One reason that these entrepreneurs are unreasonable is that they are unqualified for the task they take on. Most entrepreneurs have not studied the skills needed to implement their ideas. Instead, they bring a team of qualified people around themselves.[19] It is the idea that draws this team.

Ethical fiber is important because leaders who are about to change the world must be trustworthy. Drayton described this to his employees by suggesting that they picture a situation that frightens them and then place the candidate in the situation with them. If they feel comfortable in this scenario, the entrepreneur has ethical fiber.[20] One distinguishing attribute of entrepreneurs is that they rarely take credit for making change. They insist that the change they have brought about is due to everyone around them. They also tend to be driven by emotion; they are not trying primarily to make a profit but to address suffering.[21] Muhammad Yunus says about this characteristic, « He (or she) competes in the marketplace with all other competitors but is inspired by a set of social objectives. This is the basic reason for being in the business. »[22]

History[edit]

Social entrepreneurship is distinct from the concept of entrepreneurship, yet still shares several similarities with its business cousin. Jean-Baptiste Say (1767–1832), a French economist, defined an entrepreneur as a person who « undertakes » an idea and shifts perspectives in a way that it alters the effect that an idea has on society.[9] An entrepreneur is further defined by Say as someone who « shifts economic resources out of an area of lower and into an area of higher productivity and greater yield. »[23] The difference between « entrepreneurship » and « social entrepreneurship », however, stems from the purpose of a creation. Social entrepreneurs seek to transform societies at large, rather than transforming their profit margin, as classic entrepreneurs typically seek to do. Social entrepreneurs use a variety of resources to bring societies into a better state of well-being.

The concept of « social entrepreneurship » is not a novel idea, but in the 2000s, it has become more popular among society and academic research, notably after the publication of « The Rise of the Social Entrepreneur » by Charles Leadbeater.[6] Many activities related to community development and higher social purpose fall within the modern definition of social entrepreneurship. Despite the established definition nowadays, social entrepreneurship remains a difficult concept to define, since it may be manifested in multiple forms.[24] A broad definition of the concept allows interdisciplinary research efforts to understand and challenge the notions behind social entrepreneurship. No matter in which sector of society certain organizations are (i.e. corporations or unincorporated associations, societies, associations or cooperatives), social entrepreneurship focuses on the social impact that an endeavor aims at.[6] Whether social entrepreneurship is altruistic or not is less important than the effect it has on society.

The terms social entrepreneur and social entrepreneurship were used first in the literature in 1953 by H. Bowen on his book « Social Responsibilities of the Businessman ».[25] The terms came into widespread use in the 1980s and 1990s, promoted by Bill Drayton,[26] Charles Leadbeater, and others.[27] From the 1950s to the 1990s, the politician Michael Young was a leading promoter of social entrepreneurship and in the 1980s, he was described by Professor Daniel Bell at Harvard University as the « world’s most successful entrepreneur of social enterprises ». Young created more than sixty new organizations worldwide, including the School for Social Entrepreneurs (SSE) which exists in the UK, Australia, and Canada and which supports individuals to realize their potential and to establish, scale, and sustain, social enterprises and social businesses. Another notable British social entrepreneur is Andrew Mawson OBE, who was given a peerage in 2007 because of his urban regeneration work including the Bromley by Bow Centre in East London. Although the terms are relatively new, social entrepreneurs and social entrepreneurship may be found throughout history. A list of a few noteworthy people whose work exemplifies the modern definition of « social entrepreneurship » includes Florence Nightingale, founder of the first nursing school and developer of modern nursing practices; Robert Owen, founder of the cooperative movement; and Vinoba Bhave, founder of India’s Land Gift Movement. During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries some of the most successful social entrepreneurs straddled the civic, governmental, and business worlds. These pioneers promoted new ideas that were taken up by mainstream public services in welfare, schools, and health care.

2000s[edit]

Major organizations[edit]

A panel discusses social entrepreneurship in the health care sector in 2015.

Groups focused on social entrepreneurship may be divided into several categories: community-based enterprises, socially responsible enterprises, social services industry professionals, and socio-economic enterprises.[6] Community-based enterprises are based on the social ventures aimed at and involving an entire community. These enterprises build on the community’s culture and capital (e.g., volunteer resources, financing, in-kind donations, etc.) to empower the enterprise and the community.[28] Socially responsible enterprises focus on creating sustainable development through their initiatives that focus mostly on creating societal gains for the community.[6] Social service industry professionals such as social workers and public health nurses work in social services, either for a government or a non-profit organization. They aim to expand social capital for individuals, communities, and organizations. Socio-economic enterprises include corporations that balance earning profits and with nonprofit goals, such as seeking social change for communities. Some social entrepreneurship organizations are not enterprises in a business sense; instead, they may be charities, non-profit organizations or voluntary sector organizations.

In addition, there are support organizations dedicated to empowering social entrepreneurs, connecting them with mentors, strengthening their enterprise models, and preparing them for capital investments. These incubators and accelerator organizations provide office and meeting space (often free), mentoring and coaching for social enterprise founders and leaders to help them develop their enterprises by improving the effectiveness of their business model, marketing, and strategy. Some accelerator organizations help social entrepreneur leaders to scale up their organization, either by taking it from a local scale to a national scale or from a national scale to a global scale. Some entrepreneurship support organizations also provide mentoring and coaching to social entrepreneurs.

One well-known social entrepreneur is Muhammad Yunus, who founded the Grameen Bank in 1976. He is known as the « father of microcredit, » and established the microfinance movement, which aims to help millions of people rural communities to access small loans.[9] For his work, he was awarded a Nobel Peace Prize in 2006.[29] The work that Yunus did through Grameen Bank has been described as a major influence on later social entrepreneurs.[30] Larger countries in Europe and South America have tended to work more closely with public organizations at both the national and local level.